What is a domain?
A domain is a name on the Internet that can represent an organization, an individual, or something else. We associate IP addresses with this name, as a domain is easier to remember than an IP address.
Example of a domain and its IP address
https://google.com 126.96.36.199 (IP address valid on the day of publication)
Each domain consists of a suffix (com) and a name (any name for example hashnode). There is always a dot between the suffix and the name.
The most common domain extensions
- .com commercial domains
- .net network services
- .org non-profit organizations
- .eu European domain (limited to European Union citizens and organisations)
These domains can be registered by anyone according to the “first come, first served” rule. However, there are domain extensions that can only be registered by certain organizations.
Examples of such domains are:
- .edu for US educational institution
- .gov for US government organizations
- .mil for U.S. military
We register the domain at the domain registration emphasis, some of which are:
- Namecheap https://www.namecheap.com/
- Google Domains https://domains.google/
- GoDaddy https://uk.godaddy.com/
- Name https://www.name.com/
We have to pay a certain amount to register and after the purchase, we become the happy owner of the domain.
What is a DNS server?
The DNS server allows us to store DNS records. It works in a very simple way to connect an IP address to a domain.
There are several types of DNS records:
- A record - a record that has an IPv4 domain address.
- AAAA record - a record that has an IPv6 domain address.
- CNAME record - Forwards one domain or subdomain to another domain, does not provide an IP address.
- MX record - Directs mail to the email server.
- TXT record - Allows the administrator to save text notes in a record.
- SOA record - Stores administrator information about the domain.
- SRV record - Specifies the port for certain services.
- PTR record - Provides a domain name in reverse lookup paths.
Free domain and DNS hosting
When a developer needs a free domain to test a particular service or doesn't have the money to register a domain. Therefore, there are options on how to obtain a free domain.
One commonly known domain that you can get for free is the .tk domain but it is not exactly popular among web service providers (because they are used by many hackers and spammers). So today I’m going to show you another way to get a free subdomain with extensions eu.org.
In my opinion, this is one of the better domains that we can use for websites. Currently, I also use this domain for my sites because I don’t have the money to register a domain.
Let's go to the website where we register and get a new account.
After creating the account, we will receive a message (check spam folder) at the previously entered e-mail address with a link to confirm our user account. Then we can sign up.
Upon registration, we will see all the domains we own (none yet).
When we create an account and log in for the first time, a list of domains we own is displayed.
Now the time has come when we can create our domain. We press the “New Domain” button and a page will open where we can create and register our new domain.
Fill in the required information. Enter the following two from Cloudflare next to the name of the DNS servers
NS1 elaine.ns.cloudflare.com NS2 sage.ns.cloudflare.com
And press the "Submit" key. This will send a request for a new domain.
We'll receive a domain creation confirmation in a few days after approval, and we'll be able to add it to Cloudflare, to host DNS records.
Cloudflare provides free DDOS protection, free SSL certificates, site rules, caching and minimization of static web files, easy site analysis ...
We simply create an account by going to their website.
And we enter our email address and come up with a secure password. We receive a confirmation email and our account has been created.
We can now add our domain. This is simply done by clicking “Add a Site”
Then in the next window that opens, enter the domain name you want to add.
We choose the package we want to use, it will probably be free, because it is enough for basic needs.
In the next step, the wizard itself will automatically scan for existing DNS records and overwrite them if they exist.
Finally, we will be prompted to change the DNS server names and that’s it.
For eu.org domain, we change the DNS server by simply clicking on our domain.
Find the “Nameservers” key and replace the existing ones with new ones.
Now enter the first required server address in the Name1 field in Name2, the other required address.
So, we set up our domain and now we have to wait for all the indirect servers to update (this can take up to 24 hours).
What are DNS records are can be checked with a tool like What is my DNS
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